Banks render to clients a set of services which are subdivided on deposit, credit, investment and other. Deposit services have an undoubted priority in bank marketing as without the attracted resources the commercial bank can't function. As a source of money of bank the equity, deposits and loans acts. Deposits are subdivided into on-demand deposits - savings and urgent. In the Russian practice which developed for today commercial banks provide the same services, as well as foreign banks with long-term reputation. However from the services mastered in the western practice at us it is possible to receive about about a third so far. Having opened any newspaper, it is almost possible to find for certain advertizing offers of the Russian banks, different financial institutions on deposits, and they differ usually only with the level of the offered interest rates. Reasonablly therefore to consider main types of the banking services creating the financial market of developed countries to make use of their experience in case of implementation of modern marketing in our bank system.
Usually liabilities of bank are created of two main sources: deposits (deposits) and loans of bank in the money market or in Central Bank. To the population in the USA, for example, the following types of accounts open: transferable accounts are regular check accounts, special check accounts; NAU-accounts; accounts super-NAU; accounts of money market deposits; savings accounts; accounts according to term deposits - from 7 to 31 day, for a period of 31 and more days. Exist as well so-called accounts packets on which the whole service package, for example, the regular check account to which if necessary transfer funds from a savings deposit is offered, expose letters of credit, the overdraft, credit cards.
The regular check account opens against an on-demand deposit of the small size. Monthly the account for payment is sent to his owner. The bank levies a payment for account management, and also for handling of each check, stimulating with that the client to reduce number of the drawn checks. The payment can sometimes not be levied at all. Banks make a similar concession to the client, but stipulate the average extent of balance, i.e. that amount which shall be constantly on the account. In case of decrease in this amount the client will shall pay operating costs for account management and handling of each check. Costs of bank include expenses on check processing and servicing of deposits, the statement of the account for payment,
postage expenses. Similar characteristics also special check accounts possess. The term "special" means that the client doesn't make monthly large number of payments and seldom uses the checkbook. In this case to the client the payment - 15-25 cents for handling of each check is established "special" (from here and the account name). The NAU-accounts (exposed against the order) - an innovation among banking services. NAU-accounts open against on-demand deposits, but on them the percent which size is limited is paid.

The bank levies a payment for account management (in proportion to its minimum and average balance) and for servicing of each contribution or withdrawal. Expenses of bank the same, as according to check accounts, plus the percentage payments estimated on the minimum or average balance.
Super-NAU accounts exist recently. The name they received for obligatory minimum balance of 1000 dollars (since January, 1985-1000 dollars) and for an unrestricted interest rate. Here the payment levied by bank is estimated usually from an average balance.

Money market account, or MMDA acquired the right to existence recently also with an average balance in 1000 dollars. On this account the minimum term of its immunity for the owner doesn't make a reservation, but it is possible to withdraw from it money no more than three times a month (having drawn the check) and three more times money it is possible to withdraw according to the preliminary requirement. The interest rate initially wasn't limited. The bank levies from the account holder the corresponding payment in compensation of operating expenses.
Savings accounts. The deposit withdrawal from the account is performed immediately on request of the owner. Banks have opportunity to compete, using percent. Rates on it and other accounts are established usually according to an interest rate of any liability addressing
in the public market and which terms correspond to terms of this account. So, the size of percent but to the savings account is determined by percent on 30-day bank certificates. The bank incurs operating costs for which levies a payment, and interest costs.
Accounts according to term deposits. If the contribution is located for a period of 7 till 31 days, the size of the paid interest is limited 5,5% in size, if balance less than 2500 dale., since January 1, 1984 - 1000 dale. If balance more than 2500 dale. or if term exceeds 31 days, the lower and upper limits of a rate of percent aren't set. The bank withdraws a penalty in case of deposit withdrawal to term.
Commercial banks always aim to get the maximum profit from each client and therefore offer ranges of services. So, there was an innovation: once firm walls between accounts were destroyed and there were "accounts of the connected services". The range of services joins unrestricted checkwriting, free check servicing (without compensation of operating expenses to bank), provision of the safe, a credit card, overdraft, reducing percent on some types of a consumer loan. The checkbook, a credit card, tourist checks are exposed against the same deposit account which is linked and with other deposit accounts (funds are transferred to it), and with credit customer accounts.
The client pays for use of such account to bank the monthly fee from three to five dollars. As well as in a case with regular check accounts, the bank can determine the size of the minimum or average balance in case of which the fee won't be levied.
Not all services connected with maintaining similar accounts are necessary to the specific client, but the bank can't forget and about the income. The price for "loading" quite can counterbalance, for example, the refusal of the fee made in the advertizing purposes.
Except mentioned, there is a large number of the accounts expected narrow groups of a clientele (for young consumers, pensioners, etc.).
Among recently arisen accounts we will note the "individual retirement account" which resulted from a difficult interlacing of interests of banks and their clients. By means of this account banks attracted new deposits as the money placed into it by the client originally wasn't assessed with a tax. Later the benefit of the retirement account was lost, but it didn't stop the existence of money market account. Its basis is natural tendency of people to provide the future. By the end of every year (for December 31) banks calculate market value of the account and by January 31 of the next year the client получаст information on his condition and the added percent. In general the share of deposits of individuals fluctuates from 52% in small banks to 14% in nine largest. They are considered as the stablest source of liabilities.
We will consider further the accounts opened on deposits of the companies and the states. Commercial and industrial deposits exist in two main types: on-demand deposits and deposit certificates.
On-demand deposits. On them the regular current account opens. Services in this deposit include collection, settlement services, electronic money transfer, a cash management (identification of a free remaining balance and its placement for short term in assets on which interests), investment management (purchase and sale of securities in the secondary market on funds from this account), currency exchange, etc. are paid. Usually when opening the such account the minimum compensating balance makes a reservation. As the business clientele is connected with bank generally credit services, the size of a compensating balance is established depending on a loan amount and serves as their providing. Besides, the client pays expenses separately for each service.

Deposit certificates were active means of acceleration of turnover of money that is very important for all agents of financial business as the income of all participants thereby raises. For corporations is a flexible management tool cash. Deposit certificates possess different urgency (one month, three months, six months) and not limited percent which precisely reflects a condition of the demand and supply in the money market. The bank pays to the owner of the certificate the interests determined by fluctuations of the secondary market and also incurs operating costs. In exchange he receives the large amounts for a certain term for active transactions.
The state keeps deposits in banks in three main types; on-demand deposits, term deposits and in deposits of Treasury.
On-demand deposits. The governments of states and regional authorities make a contribution on which regular current accounts open to local banks. From this account the salary is paid to employees, clearing settlements, a cash management, by investments, etc. are made. Governmental bodies as well as entrepreneurs, support a compensating balance, and also can pay the fee for each service. The financial position of municipalities and larger government organizations seldom happens stable. Therefore banks are forced to insure themselves against possible risk, generally through the room of part of means in securities (banks insure the certain part of a contribution established by the legislation of this staff in Federal corporation of deposits insurance. It is providing for uninsured part).
Term deposits. They also require collateral security in securities.
Money market account. To treasury commercial banks open the tax loan account. In this respect the bank collects the arriving taxes (under -
hodny, corporation, on social insurance, the federal taxes on content of the unemployed). Here also the proceeds from sales of securities of Treasury, in particular, of savings bonds arrive. The means which arrived into this account move further in two ways: or through a translated option, or through a bill option. The translated option means that the bank at the end of each business day translates the weight of revenues to the account of Treasury in Federal reserve bank. During the day the arriving means are at the disposal of bank as regular on-demand deposits and against them the bank holds the corresponding allowances. In case of a bill option the bank transfers revenues of last day to the special interest bill account, funds with which the Treasury withdraws on demand. The rate of percent on the bill of exchange is 25 points lower than a rate, average in a week, on Federal funds. In case of any option the Treasury pays to bank the fee.

Deposits of financial institutions. It first of all - on-demand deposits of corresponding banks on which correspondent accounts open. The size of a contribution is determined by intensity of communications. On correspondent accounts check clearing, participation in loan granting, investment services are performed. Use of correspondent account is paid generally with maintenance of a compensating balance of l partially - payment of the fee. Correspondent accounts constitute the interbank market, and their size is the sensitive indicator of the fluctuation in demand and the offer. So, with fall of interest rates also the income of banks respectively falls. Falls, naturally, and the credited income of respondents on those means which they take from correspondent accounts. Therefore, to support the level of the income, banks shall increase the amount of balances. Besides, each bank is connected by correspondent bonds not with one, and about tens banks, therefore fluctuations
the prices of the credit causes chain reaction on all Punk system.
We will notice that correspondent accounts banks of N communicate in system. From the translation of cash letters, from other simple and difficult forms of capital circulation in the society of the account laid a way to an interlacing, close connection of organizational forms of this address. The corresponding bank can perform consultation of bank of the respondent up to management of it today. And it is important to emphasize that it not an interlacing of property, but an interlacing of functional, organizational forms. By means of correspondent accounts before small banks prospects of transactions which they in itself aren't able to offer the clients open. Large banks, using correspondent communications, get on the smallest market, collect the unemployed capitals at small banks.
Therefore, considering accounts of separate commercial bank, we come to all bank system. Each commercial bank is an open system. Between it and other banks actually there are no borders for an equity modulation (there are borders of property and the organization). The free modulation of the equity (it moves behind the price) forces banks to cooperate actively with each other and constantly to look for new and new spheres of its investment as differently they won't be able to be calculated with the investors.

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